Antimicrobial Activity of Callyspongia sp From Culasi, Antique Against Ice-Ice Promoting Bacteria, Bacillus cereus, Brevundimonas diminuta, and Vibrio alginolyticus

Marc Angelico Elizalde1, Nove Kris Herida1, Marcel Jaudian1 and Harold Mediodia1
1Philippine Science High School Western Visayas Campus – Bito-on, Jaro, Iloilo City 5000, Department of Science and Technology, Philippines

Seaweeds are one of the Philippines’ major exports. However, seaweed farms are often damaged by ice-ice, a disease condition that turns the branches of the seaweeds into white, fragile branches that easily come off. Previous studies have shown that Bacillus cereus, Brevundimonas diminuta, and Vibrio alginolyticus are known to be associated with and causes ice-ice disease. Methods known to use other organisms to control or inhibit the bacteria that cause the disease are polyculture cultivation and bioprotection. Callyspongia sp. was concluded to have potential as bioprotector in seaweed cultivation; however, other studies suggest that sponges at different locations may result to different antimicrobial activity due to the different symbionts present in different environments, which are responsible to the production of many chemical compounds. This study tested the antibacterial activity of Callyspongia sp. from Mararison Island, Culasi, Antique against Bacillus cereus, Brevundimonas diminuta, and Vibrio alginolyticus. Callyspongia sp. crude extract was extracted using 200 mL of methanol for every 25 g of Callyspongia sp. Broth dilution test was used and serial dilution was performed to produce an eight-fold concentration. Each bacterium was inoculated into the treated test tubes containing the crude extract and three replicates were used. Data was collected using a spectrophotometer and was analyzed using ANOVA. Results showed that the crude extract had significant effects in the growth of Bacillus cereus and Vibrio alginolyticus especially in 4.8×10-3 g/mL and 4.8×10-4 g/mL concentrations and for Brevundimonas diminuta, extract concentration 4.8×10-3 g/mL significantly inhibited its growth. Results show that Callyspongia sp. has the ability to inhibit the growth of bacteria associated with and causing ice-ice disease and has the potential to be used as a bioprotector in seaweed cultivation.


  1. Geocities. 2009. The seaweed industry of the Philippines. [Internet] Available from:
  2. Tisera WL, Naguit MRA. 2009. Ice-ice disease occurrence in seaweed farms in Bais Bay, Negros Occidental and Zamboanga del Norte. The Threshold. 4: 1-16.
  3. Fresco MC. 2003. ”Ice-ice” algae pose threat on Zamboanga’s seaweeds. Bureau of Agricultural Research [Internet]. 4(12). Available from: october-2003-issue/3028-ice-ice-algae-pose-threat-onzamboanga-s-seaweeds
  4. Sarian, Z. 2014. A seaweed fiesta to inspire people to grow seaweeds. Manila Bulletin [Internet]. Available from:
  5. Largo DB, Fukami K, Nishijima T. 1995. Occasional pathogenic bacteria promoting ice-ice disease in the carrageenan producing red algae Kappaphycus alvarezii and Eucheuma denticulatum (Solieriaceae, Gigartinales, Rhodophyta). Journal of Applied Phycology 7: 545-554.
  6. Tokan MK, Gufran DD, Mbing MI. 2015. Controlling of the ice-ice disease on seaweed through polyculture cultivation techniques. Asian Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology Environmental Sciences Paper. 17(1):7-15.
  7. Gliessman SR, Aitieri M. 1962. Polyculture cropping has advantages. California Agriculture. 14-16.
  8. Weijerman M, Most R, Wong K, Beavers S. 2008. Attempt to control the invasive red alga Acanthophora spicifera (Rhodophyta: Ceramiales) in a Hawaiian fishpond: an assessment of removal techniques and management options. Pacific Science. 62(4):517-532.
  9. Ohba H, Nashima H, Enomoto S. 1992. Culture studies on Caulerpa (caulerpales, chlorophyceae) III. Reproduction, development and morphological variation of laboratorycultured C. racemosavar peltata. The botanical magazine. 105(4):589-600
  10. Mandal, A (Reviewed by Sally Robertson 2014). What is biosecurity?. News Medical [Internet] Available from:
  11. Faulkner DJ (2000) Marine natural products. Nat Prod Rep 17:755
  12. Ridley CP, Faulkner DJ. 2003. New Cytotoxic Steroidal Alkaloids from the Philippine Sponge Corticium n iger. Journal of natural products, 66(12), 1536-1539.
  13. Assmann M, Lichte E, Pawlik JR, Koeck M. 2000. Chemical defenses of the Caribbean sponges Agelas wiedenmayeri and Agelas conifera. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 207:255-262.
  14. Dobretsov S, Dahms H, Qian P. 2004. Antilarval and antimicrobial activity of waterborne metabolites of the sponge Callyspongia (Euplacella) pulvinata: evidence of allelopathy. Mar Ecol Prog Ser. 271(2004):133-146.
  15. Rajagopal B, Jegan SR, Seena RV, Suma S, Angiesh TK, Baby J. 2008. Bioactive screening of Peninsular Indian Marine Sponges on Selected Microorganisms. Journal of Basic Applied Biology, 2(1): 56-64.
  16. Dhanalakshmi J, Kipkirui BF and Selvi S. 2012. An invitro antimicrobial activity and bioactivities of protein isolated from marine sponge Callyspongia sp. Research in Pharmacy 2(1): 36-41.
  17. Kurnianda V, Setiawan A. 2015. Bioactivity a poly hydroxyl isocopalane from Callyspongia sp as antibacterial resistant Escherichia coli. International Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences (IJPBCS). 4(2):30-33.
  18. Dobretsov S, Dahms H, Qian P. 2005. Antibacterial and anti-diatom activity of Hong Kong sponges. Aquat Microb Ecol. 38(2005):191-201.
  19. De Voogd N, Haftka J, Hoeksema B. 2005. Evaluation of the ecological function of amphitoxin in the reefdwelling sponge, Callyspongia (Euplacella) biru (Haplosclerida: Callyspongiidae) at southwest Sulawesi, Indonesia. Contributions to Zoology 74(2005): 51-59.
  20. Qian PY, Dobretsov S, Dahms HU, Pawlik J. 2006. Antifouling activity and microbial diversity of two congeneric sponges Callyspongia spp. from Hong Kong and the Bahamas. Mar Ecol Prog 324(2006): 151-165.
  21. Gupta RS. 1998a. What are archaebacteria: life’s third domain or monoderm prokaryotes related to gram-positive bacteria? A new proposal for the classification of prokaryotic organisms. Mol. Microbiol. 29(3): 695-707.
  22. Gupta RS. 1998b. Protein phylogenies and signature sequences: a reappraisal of evolutionary relationships among archaebacteria, eubacteria, and eukaryotes. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 62 (4): 143-591.
  23. Largo DB. 2002. Recent developments in seaweed diseases. In: A.Q. Hurtado, N.G. Guanzon, Jr., T.R. de Castro-Mallare, M.R.J. Luhan (Eds.) Proceedings of the National Seaweed Planning Workshop held on August 2- 3, 2001, SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department, Tigbauan, Iloilo. (pp. 35-42). Tigbauan, Iloilo : SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department.
  24. Aris M. 2011 (As cited by Tokan et al. 2014). Identification, pathogenicity of bacteria and 16S-rRNA gene pemanfaatan for ice-ice disease detection in seaweed cultivation (Kappaphycus alvarezii). Not published. Bogor: Institute of Agriculture Graduate School Bogor.
  25. Tokan MK, Lodo 2008. The Effect of Callyspongia extract toward Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. University of Nusa Cendana: Kupang
  26. Mustapha S, Ennaji M, Cohen N. 2013. Vibrio Alginolyticus: An emerging pathogen of foodborne diseases. Maejo International Journal of Science and Technology [Internet]. 2(4):302-309.
  27. McCaffrey EJ, Endean R. 1985. Antimicrobial activity of tropical and subtropical sponges. Marine Biology, 89(1): 1-8.
  28. Burkholder PR, Ruetzler K. 1969. Antimicrobial activity of some marine sponges. Nature, 222(5197):983-984.
  29. Amade P, Pesando D, Chevolot L. 1982. Antimicrobial activities of marine sponges from French Polynesia and Brittany. Marine Biology, 70(3):223-228. 
  30. Bergquist, PR, Bedford JJ. 1978. The incidence of antibacterial activity in marine Demospongiae; systematic and geographical considerations. Mar. Biol. 46:215-221.